Russian history: The outcome of the Russian Revolution
In the 20th Century, Russia will go through two revolutions, The Revolution of 1905 and the Revolution of 1917. Both Revolutions were spearheaded by Lenin who wanted a complete overthrow of the government and the implementation of a government based on Marxist ideology.
Lenin used Marx ideology in the 1905 Revolution which called for the overthrow of the government that came from the working class or what Marx called the proletariat. Many need to realize that at this time, the working class was almost non existent in Russia. It was very small and was considered part of the peasant class. Russia had not gone through industrialization; they had factories to keep their state going but had not gone this process which is part of the criteria for a Revolution based on Marx ideology. The class structure of Russia made this quite impossible for it only had two classes at the time, the aristocracy and the peasants. Finally, too many groups had emerged and wanted a part in the Revolution with one strong leader taking the reigns. Two of the leaders of this time, Leon Trotsky would be arrested and sent to Siberia as well as Vladimir Lenin, both of whom escaped en route and left Russia.
Although the 1905 Revolution failed, there were some positives that came out of this revolution. We see, for the first time in Russia, millions of people in the cities and in the villages come together to fight for the same cause. Czar Nicholas II allowed for the creation of the Russian Parliament, the Duma; The October Manifesto was created; Lenin, although not in state, realized that the motivation for the next uprising was not in the middle class but with the peasants. So all was not lost, plus this Revolution laid the groundwork for the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The outcome of the second Russia Revolution 1917 was quite significant. While many think that Lenin created a Communist government, it was not until Stalin that this was so. What Lenin did was take Marxist ideology and tweaked it to fit the Russia state. For instance, the Revolution's driving force was the peasant class and not the workers as stated in the Communist Manifesto. What Lenin did for the Russians after the Revolution was quite extraordinary, he gave land to the peasants, those factories that were working were put under the charge of the workers, he reduced the work day to 8 hours, he wiped out foreign debt, he eliminated all secret treaties made with other countries and he made peace with Germany to get out of World War I.
Although the Revolution was off on a good foot, there were still those loyal to the Royals and began a campaign to take back Russia. This threw the county into Civil War. The Bolsheviks were able to win only because they understood modern warfare and they gained the support or the peasant class. The peasants knew that if the White Army won and the aristocracy came back into power then their land would be taken from them. From this point on, Lenin tightened his grip on Russia and before he could implement any real reform, he suffered and died from a stroke. Josip Stalin will take control of the Soviet Union and will begin to implement his ideology of Communism, which included rapid industrialization as well as communes. He ruled Russia with an Iron Fist until his death in 1953.